Bipolar disorder, also identified as Bipolar affective disorder, is a form of mental illness characterized by mood swings, changes in energy, and difficulty focusing. A person with depression or mania may display intense mood swings and changes in thoughts and behavior.
In contrast, bipolar disorder causes intense emotional states that happen over distinct time periods, described as mood episodes.
“Manic” describes the excessive vitality and confidence that can accompany bipolar disorder. Additionally, feelings of irritability may result in impulsive and reckless actions. Approximately half of the people with mania also experience delusions or hallucinations.
Two-thirds of patients have some family history of mental illness, making BPAD the most prevalent mental disorder in the family. There is growing research into the role of family history and genetics in BPAD, which explains 80% of all cases.
Regardless of the cause of bipolar disorder, it is believed that an imbalance of chemicals in the brain causes dysregulation of activity within the brain. In most cases, the onset of this disease occurs after 25 years of age. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is categorized into three different forms: bipolar type I, bipolar type II, and cyclothymia.
The word “mood” is defined as a ubiquitous and underlining experience of feeling or emotion that permeates a person’s perception and behavior. Mood disorders include bipolar conditions.
Types of bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder is classified into a few types
- Bipolar I disorder: Patients with this kind of disorder experience numerous episodes of manic behavior that last for at least a week or are severe enough to require medical intervention. In addition, there may be prolonged periods of “down” that last at least two weeks.
- Bipolar II disorder: In this disorder, you are also affected by highs and lows, but they are not as extreme as those associated with bipolar I.
- Cyclothymic disorder: It is characterized by periods of manic and depressive behavior that last at least three years in adults and one year in adolescents. Its symptoms are not as intense as those associated with bipolar disorders I or II.
Bipolar Disorder Symptoms
Bipolar disorder involves mood swings that do not follow a set pattern. Someone can experience the same mood state (depressive or manic) several times before switching to the opposite mood. An episode may occur over weeks, months, or years.
Different people experience symptoms differently, and the severity may also increase or decrease over time.
Here are some symptoms of Bipolar disorder:
- An exuberant feeling of happiness, excitement, and hope
- From feeling joyful to being irritable, angry, and hostile suddenly
- Fast-paced speech and low concentration
- Less sleep and more energy
- Creating unrealistic plans
- Unreasonable behavior
- Addiction to drugs and alcohol
- Sleeping less
- Reduced appetite
- Enhanced self-confidence and sense of well-being
- Able to be easily distracted
Identifying the facts, both the terms are the same and convey similar information.
The stress associated with mood swings can often be relieved by talk therapy.